If you want to take your music skills a level further or you want to go big as a musician, it’s important that you know how to transpose music. Almost every musician knows how to do this.
You may find other people playing a song in a different key than what you play it with. This could be caused by various reasons. For example, it’s may just be hard to play that certain key on their instrument, or their vocal range isn’t that high or low, so they have to choose a different key for the song.
Whatever the reason, you need to be ready for situations like this as it may happen often when you’re playing with other musicians. Learning how to transpose music lets you adapt to any of these situations, if they arise. It gives you a bit more versatility as a musician and of course more adaptability to most situations. Which is why transposing music is an important skill for a musician to master.
What is Music Transposition?
Now, to learn how to transpose music we need to first understand what exactly it is to transpose music.
When you take a piece of music, melody or even a chord sequence and change the key of the music or the pitch of the notes whether it’s higher or lower, all while keeping the relative intervals that are between them the same is called Transposition.
The intervals between all the notes and the rhythm stay the same. But depending on how you’ve composed it the song will be either in a higher or lower pitch and maybe even in a different key.
For example, if we were to take the Twinkle Twinkle Little Star melody which is in the C major key, and we transpose the melody up to a major second, it will still be Twinkle Twinkle Little Star but in the key of D major now. It will sound the same still, but all the notes will be at a different pitch.
There are a variety of reasons where you may need to or want to transpose music. But some of the main issues that they help with are:
- It makes the music easier to read for the musician. For example, even though the notes are an octave lower, the double brass reads the music at one pitch, which can be very difficult if the notes aren’t transposed down.
- It makes the music easier to play. Different instruments have different ranges and designs. Some instrumentalists may find it easier to play if the music is in a different key since some instruments are easier to be played in certain keys.
- It is helpful for the vocalist as well. Putting in the right keys for your singer is important if they are having trouble with the really high or the really low notes. If you change the keys to make the music better fitting for their range then you will end up with a great performance.
There are many other helpful reasons why you may want to transpose music. The most common instruments that are used to transpose music are: Saxophone, French horn, clarinet and trumpet. These instruments are better to properly transpose music before it is actually played.
How to Transpose Music?
You can transpose music in different ways. It can be transposed up or down a given interval. For music theory, some of the more common intervals you need to transpose are:
- Up or down a perfect fifth
- Up or down a minor third
- Up or down a major second
- Up or down an octave
These are the most common intervals since most transposing instruments read music this way.
When you’re transposing up or down on these intervals, you need to follow three steps:
- Working out a new key signature and key
- Write all notes down or up on the specified interval
- Check for the accidentals
1. Key Signature Transposition
Let’s take a melody in G major and transpose it down to a minor third. We now need to work out what the new key would be and the relating key signature. This can easily be done by going down a minor third interval. Doing this brings us to E, meaning the new key is going to be an E major that contains four sharps in its key signature. Now the new key signature can be written in along with the bar lines and time signature since they won’t change.
2. Transpose the Notes
Now the second step would be to transpose all of the notes down to an interval of a third. We’re going to look into the accidentals in the third step so there’s no need to worry about them now. Take each note and count back three letter notes to move them down a third. For example, the first note is G, counting back three letter notes would make it, G-F-E, meaning the first note is now E. If the second note is D it goes up, D-C-B, meaning F.
This is continued throughout the whole piece of music, till all the notes are moved up.
This step may be a bit more confusing than the previous two, but it mainly involves three things:
- Look at original key signature to see what the note started out as
- What was done to it by the addition of the accidental
- Do the same thing to the note in your transposed version
Use double sharps or double flats if you need to lower a note that is already flat or raise a note that is already in the sharp key.
Transposing is a very practical and important skill for a musician to have. It comes in handy with arranging and composing music pieces. Practicing this more often also helps you greatly in sight reading and key signature memorization!